CONTRIBUTORS. VII. PREFACE. IX. 1. Historical Review of Algal. Culturing Techniques. 1. Hans R. Preisig. Robert A. Andersen. 2. Freshwater Culture Media. download Algal Culturing Techniques - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. Unavailable. Price includes VAT/GST. DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi). × DRM-Free. Traditional Microalgae PREFACE IX Isolation Techniques 83 Robert A. Andersen 1. Historical Review of Algal Masanobu Kawachi Culturing Techniques 1 7.

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Algal Culturing Techniques presents a comprehensive reference and guidebook covering all aspects of the isolation and cultivation of marine and freshwater. Algal Culturing Techniques is a comprehensive reference on all aspects of the isolation and cultivation of marine and freshwater algae, including seaweeds. The development of efficient culture systems is necessary for algal mass . techniques borrowed from microbiology are available for obtaining unialgal isolates.

The sug- culturing techniques have continued to be formulat- gestion to systematically compare different culture ed, some of which have been published in peer-re- media also will be helpful for those who set out for op- viewed journals or websites e.

Provasoli-Guillard timal growth conditions for the cultures.

It is often Metal toxicity has long been a hurdle for growing frustrating when it comes to finding an appropriate oceanic species. The ability to provide controlled culturing technique for a new species isolated from the amount of trace metals is required for studies on ef- natural environment.

This book, Algal Culturing Techniques, edited by Chapter 4 first gives full accounts of kinetics of metal Dr. Robert A. Andersen, is a welcome to the world of dissolution and dissociation from the chelaters, and phycology.

Composed of 25 chapters and an appendix, then provides theoretical analysis to assess what type the book is a nice collection of articles introducing var- and how much of a chelator to use to provide adequate ious methods and techniques in culturing micro- as buffering strength to the metal ions in cultures.

It well as macro-algae. The volume covers a wide range highlights the need to consider the varying buffering of topics from basic algal isolation, sterilization of me- capacities of different chelators in determining the type dia and vessels, different types of cultures batch, semi- and concentration of the chelator for a culture.

As many as 15 different ways of sterilization growth rate, and production. The content spans from are compared. It tells that sterilization procedure is not research scale of alga culturing to industrial scale, latter just putting the materials in a sterilizer and run it of which further ranges from indoor tank operations, through the cycle.

Vigilance over potential sources processing, sample preparation and analysis are eluci- of contamination in handling sterilized materials is ex- dated.

Fluorescent staining of DNA to detect bacteria plicitly stressed and procedures to avoid contamination or viruses, of dye-permeable cells to distinguish dead are nicely laid out. I consider it must-read material for versus live cells, of specific species based on molecular phycologists, particularly for student and otherwise probes is also briefly covered. Pigment complements can be used as indicators of Four chapters 6 through 9 elaborate on isolation algal lineages to facilitate analysis of naturally occur- and purification of algal cultures.

They cover tech- ring algal species.

In the laboratory cultures, pigment niques from traditional capillary mouth pipetting to composition and abundance can be useful indicators of flow cytometric cell sorting. Details are given in regard physiological condition and cell concentration.

A high- to preparation of equipment and supplies and culture performance liquid chromatographic HPLC analysis medium including choice of seawater , isolation meth- of algal pigment is introduced in Chapter Technical ods for algae from different sources or with different details of sample collection and pre-processing, pig- living styles e.

To understand the life history of an alga, growing Crucial technical issues about flow cytometric isolation the alga through a complete life cycle is necessary.

Ways to detect Similarly, to accurately identify a morphotype to a contaminant organisms bacteria and fungi are also species, understanding of the life history is essential.

A separate chapter 22 Chapter 23 and 24 introduce techniques to grow adds to this last point by providing accounts on how to algae through the cycle of sexual and asexual repro- detect and how to prevent viral infection of the cul- duction. Types and conditions of sexual reproduction tures.

Algal species for which viruses have been isolat- e. As an ed are listed and the types and life history of viruses important part of dinoflagellate life history, conditions are also described. Yet it is often necessary Several other chapters are a nice addition to the to maintain one of a few to hundreds of cultures.

This theme of algal culturing. Chapter 19 deals with cul- book includes two chapters 10, 11 about methods to tures for studying physiological ecology of microalgae, maintain long-term cultures for microalgae and macro- and covers batch as well as continuous cultures for use alge.

Matrices of the media as well as growth conditions in studying physiological effects of nutrients and light.

1st Edition

Chapter 21 describes endogenous rhythms in macro- The chapters also demonstrate that a well-organized algae and daylength effects on algal development. Although contamination is an large-scale algal cultures are introduced in Chapters 13 important issue for all cultures, it is especially critical for through The topics range from growing algae in the effort to maintain long-term cultures.

If necessary, algal cultures can be cooled by a flow of cold water over the surface of the culture vessel or by controlling the air temperature with refrigerated air - conditioning units. Salinity Marine phytoplankton are extremely tolerant to changes in salinity.

Most species grow best at a salinity that is slightly lower than that of their native habitat, which is obtained by diluting sea water with tap water. Salinities of g.

Algal Culturing Techniques

Growth dynamics The growth of an axenic culture of micro-algae is characterized by five phases Fig. Cultures inoculated with exponentially growing algae have short lag phases, which can seriously reduce the time required for upscaling.

The lag in growth is attributed to the physiological adaptation of the cell metabolism to growth, such as the increase of the levels of enzymes and metabolites involved in cell division and carbon fixation.

Figure 2.

Five growth phases of micro-algae cultures. The specific growth rate is mainly dependent on algal species, light intensity and temperature.

Cell density decreases rapidly and the culture eventually collapses. In practice, culture crashes can be caused by a variety of reasons, including the depletion of a nutrient, oxygen deficiency, overheating, pH disturbance, or contamination. The key to the success of algal production is maintaining all cultures in the exponential phase of growth.

Moreoever, the nutritional value of the produced algae is inferior once the culture is beyond phase 3 due to reduced digestibility, deficient composition, and possible production of toxic metabolites.

A list of culture collections is provided by Vonshak and Smith et al. Alternatively, the isolation of endemic strains could be considered because of their ability to grow under the local environmental conditions. Isolation of algal species is not simple because of the small cell size and the association with other epiphytic species. Several laboratory techniques are available for isolating individual cells, such as serial dilution culture, successive plating on agar media See Worksheet 2.

Bacteria can be eliminated from the phytoplankton culture by washing or plating in the presence of antibiotics.

The sterility of the culture can be checked with a test tube containing sea water with 1 g. After sterilization, a drop of the culture to be tested is added and any residual bacteria will turn the bactopeptone solution turbid.

The collection of algal strains should be carefully protected against contamination during handling and poor temperature regulation.

Algal Culturing Techniques

To reduce risks, two series of stocks are often retained, one which supplies the starter cultures for the production system and the other which is only subjected to the handling necessary for maintenance.

Constant illumination is suitable for the maintenance of flagellates, but may result in decreased cell size in diatom stock cultures. Stock cultures are maintained for about a month and then transferred to create a new culture line Fig. The most common sources of contamination include the culture medium sea water and nutrients , the air from the air supply as well as the environment , the culture vessel, and the starter culture.Autoclaving in well-used Teflon or polycarbonate vessels reduces leaching of trace contaminants.

In them are instructions as detailed as lieved that many more remain to be cultured. However, it should be noted that not all algal species can tolerate vigorous mixing. Sterilization efficiency is, however, to some extent reduced compared with heat sterilization methods. A common source of contamination is the condensation in the airlines which harbor ciliates.

Temperature controlled room for maintenance of algal stock cultures in a bivalve hatchery: stock cultures in test tubes left and inoculation hood right. Inorganic ortho phosphate, the P form preferentially used by microalgae, is most often added to culture media, but organic glycero phosphate is sometimes used, particularly when precipitation of phosphate is anticipated when nutrients are autoclaved in the culture media rather than separately, for example.

Millipore HA can be used with suction provided by a vacuum pump; for larger volumes an in-line system with peristaltic pump and cartridge filters may be the best option. For this reason, airlines should be kept dry and both the air and the carbon dioxide should be filtered through an in-line filter of 0.